Leptospirosis Vaccine Information
Eastern Tent Caterpillar – 4/22/16 Update
Eastern Tent Caterpillars – Silk Tents
Eastern Tent Caterpillar Egg Hatch Begins in Central Kentucky
Late summer and fall is the time of year to look out for signs of Equine Proliferative Enteritis (EPE), a potentially serious disease. EPE is caused by the bacteria Lawsonia intracellularis and usually affects young horses (foals, weanlings and yearlings). While these bacteria infect the small intestines, the most common clinical sign first seen is edema under the jaw or down the legs. Other clinical signs to watch for include fever, colic signs, diarrhea, loss of body condition, and lethargy. Since these are non-specific signs of a problem, if any of these are noted it is important to work with your veterinarian to determine a diagnosis and treatment plan. Please give us call if we can help you with this problem or any of your horse health needs.
The CDC Public Health Service officer at the Kentucky Department for Public Health and Dr. John Poe, KDH Veterinarian, have reported high levels of blue-green algae/cyanobacteria in some of central Kentucky’s lakes. When these occur, these are referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms or HAB. Today, the first report of a possible human case of a HAB-related illness describes a rash on someone who swam in Taylorsville Lake in north central Kentucky. In the last few weeks, the UKVDL has received several cattle with suspected blue-green algae poisoning. The cows were found acutely dead in or near ponds in which the blue-green algae Aphanizomenon and Microcystis were identified. Harmful algal blooms occur most commonly during the hot summer and fall months in stagnant waters containing excessive concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus and other nutrients from fertilizer or manure contamination.
Clinical signs –
Under the right environmental conditions, blue-green algae can produce several major toxins. Some are potent neurotoxins causing muscle tremors, seizures, profuse salivation, dyspnea, diarrhea, and rapid death within minutes to hours. Others are hepatotoxins that can cause acute death or delayed death after signs of liver failure occur. Photosensitization can occur in animals that survive the acute stages of liver damage. In humans, skin rashes can also occur.
Don’t swim in ponds/lakes that appear to have algal bloom. Restrict animals from ponds/lakes with algal bloom and provide fresh drinking water for livestock. Dead animals can be submitted to either the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory or the Breathitt Veterinary Center for post-mortem examination. If blue-green algae intoxication is suspected, please also submit water containing green scum from the suspected water source. The CDC Public Health Service officer at the Kentucky Department for Public Health and Dr. John Poe, KDH Veterinarian, have reported high levels of blue-green algae/cyanobacteria in some of central Kentucky’s lakes. When these occur, these are referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms or HAB. Today, the first report of a possible human case of a HAB-related illness describes a rash on someone who swam in Taylorsville Lake in north central Kentucky.
Kentucky Veterinary Medical Association News Alert email@example.com
Equine Herpes Virus Type 1 (EHV-1) is described to be a highly contagious pathogen that is ubiquitous in horse populations throughout the world. Infections in horses can result in a variety of ailments that include respiratory disease, abortions, neonatal deaths and the neurologic disease termed Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Recently, alerts of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy being diagnosed in multiple states have been issued. States having cases of EHM diagnosed in recent months include California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, Tennessee and Utah. Horses of different breeds and representing vastly different disciplines and activity have been affected.
The apparent increased frequency of disease and severity of symptoms being seen has lead Kentucky State Veterinarian Robert Stout to conclude extra precaution needs to be initiated and implemented to help mitigate the associated risk. We are directing Kentucky facility managers and the managers of shows/exhibitions planned to be held in Kentucky to immediately review their biosecurity practices and if needed elevate their biosecurity plan to minimize opportunity of horses having direct or indirect contact with one another. Indirect contact would include common water and feed sources as well as shared equipment and common areas. The goal of a biosecurity plan is to prevent the transmission of infectious agents among individuals. The components of a successful program will include cooperation of management, facility layout, decontamination, and when applicable immunization. Each of these factors directly affects the success or failure of the program. A copy of the American Association of Equine Practitioners biosecurity guidelines and EHV resources can be found at www.aaep.org/ehv_resources.htm. Our office is happy to assist facilities, show management and event veterinarians in evaluating their individual plans and when a need is identified, assist in adapting the plans.
As an additional preventive measure, we encourage horsemen to consult their veterinarians and after evaluating their animal’s vaccination status consider if there is need or benefit to stimulating an immune response by vaccinating against EHV-1. We acknowledge the available vaccines’ labels make no claim to prevent neurologic disease; but based on our experience managing outbreaks of this disease, and in consultation with infectious disease experts and research scientist, we continue to be of the opinion the vaccine does have a meaningful level of efficacy and may aide in reducing the impact of a disease incident.
In response to the identified increased risk, we have and will continue to operate with elevated regulatory surveillance and equine health inspection activity at events in Kentucky. Exhibitors can expedite their passage through our inspection points by having their health documents organized and horses loaded in a manner that will allow visual inspection. In addition to the surveillance and inspection activity we will be working closely with show managers and veterinarians to insure immediate notification and quick response to any suspected communicable disease.
We continue to monitor these disease events, will adjust our strategies as warranted and provide updates as changes occur.
E.S. Rusty Ford Equine Programs Manager Office of State Veterinarian 502/564-3956 Rusty1.firstname.lastname@example.org